My Diploma's FYP


Our planned FYP titled Highly Intensified Photon Ignition System.
I'm partnered with my colleague Sudirman Jumahari.

The project started around year 2009, advised and sponsored by my beloved dad, development progress accelerated with the aid by my research partner, Abdul Halim Kadir

Here, I'll present all the related topics and links on my Final-Year-Project.
As to date, everything is under construction, hence, the very short, inconclusive page.

This page supposed to be the most updated post in regard to our project, we might update it without notice.

Special thanks to Sir Yosof Kadase for introducing me to C, and Teacher Tee Lee Harh (when I'm in SMKDAR) for acquainting me with BASIC.

Also, many thanks to Sir Kamalulfaizin B. Mohd Suhut for encouraging me to dive in into embedded system world.

Supervised by our highly knowledgeable, respected supervisor and co-supervisor,
Sir Ismail Adam and Sir Mohd Aswadi Alias, guiding mostly in software algorithm and hardware setup.

We were listed in Top20 in S1/13 for Diploma level. :)
Here's our thesis

Here's the summary of our timely progresses:

SPARK PLUG SIDE GAPPING MOD
GETTING PROJECT RESOURCES
BETTER PCB ETCHING SOLUTION?
WIRING OUR OWN POWER EXTENSION CORD
ORDERED COMPONENTS ARRIVED :)
PROBING ELECTRICAL SIGNALS ON THE BIKE
MODIFIED SINE WAVE INVERTER ATTEMPTS
FROM BIKE TO BAREBONE
MOUNTING KILL SWITCH
FINALIZING THE CONTROL UNIT
DAMAGED FUEL LEVEL FLOAT
MOUNTING LCDS ON STOCK DISPLAY PANEL
FACING WITH EMI/RFI PROBLEMS
FINAL TOUCH-UP








overviewFYP()
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Highly Intensified Photon Ignition System
(HIPIS)



Abstract
Highly Intensified Photon Ignition System (HIPIS) is an add-on device to fit any spark-ignition internal combustion engine. This includes reciprocating and rotating (Wankel) engine. The device transform ordinary low-power spark from ignition coil into highly intensified plasma – the fourth state of matter. Main intention is to preserve energy (fossil fuel).

Background
This invention generally relates to the utilization of stock spark-ignition system to trigger the high intensity plasma to effectively ignite the combustible mixture in an internal combustion engine (ICE).
The existence of CDI and MSD systems soon after the Kettering system is an evident that it is well known that ignition system plays important role in ICE.

How It Works
Technically, the system looks simple. It consists of three sections. The first section is the High Voltage Side, which’s readily available in most of the vehicle that utilize spark-ignition engine. In our system, we utilize this HV side as a Switcher, which act as a trigger for the third section; the High Current Side. The synergy between the HV and HC sides resulting high intensity plasma as the output.

Notice there’s too much of word ‘high’ being used. Despite the name, HIPIS doesn’t consume much power to operate, it only draw less than 100 Watts. That’s less than 10 Amps on 12 Volts system – About the same power consumption for each of your car headlight.
Objectives
To make full utilization of photon-ignition-system in common internal combustion engine:-

·         Enhancing the efficiency of ICE, thus, preserving energy.
·         More environmental friendly, emission close to zero.
·         Extending life of the ICE parts.
·         Dramatically improved engine performance

Expected Results
As time passed by, internal combustion engines are designed to work as hard as they can. This include forced induction, direct fuel injection with highly pressurized fuel line, variable/special valvetrain - MultiAir™, Nitrous Oxide Injection, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), Wankel’s engine, high compression-ratio engine and so on. All of these is a great improvement, but, most of the design, excluding advancing the ignition timing, none of them is done to accelerate the combustion process.

Let’s take a single cylinder reciprocating engine as a subject. It’s running at 3000 revolution per minute. That’s 50 cycles per second. Assuming the combustion process lasts for π radians, since a complete revolution takes 2π radians, which equals 100π radians per second. Thus, the period for each stroke is 100-1 which is 10 milliseconds!

Combustion is not just associated with mechanical movement; it’s also a chemical reaction. Chemical reaction takes time to complete. This is often overlooked.
Hydrocarbon-based fuel is well known for its slow flame front speed, especially high octane petrol. Slow combustion leads to many problems, which could be solved by HIPIS. The utilization of HIPIS could:-

*Accelerate the combustion process
*Minimize engine noise
*Lowers engine temperature, thus detonation
*Increase lean-mixture limit
*Better efficiency of energy conversion (waste heat to mechanical energy)
*More power output for the same amount of fuel – more horsepower!
*Improved throttle response
*Preserve engine life
*Reduce hazardous exhaust emissions

Project Scope (Potential Applications)
Obviously, the system is intended to being used on any internal combustion engine. The application is manifold. Whether for variable speed engines; which being utilized on vehicle, or constant speed engines; - i.e., which’s on any spark-ignition engine operated electrical generator/water pump and so on.

Besides than being used as a ‘performance mod’ on subjected engine, it also expands the possibilities for alternative fuels. For instance, it could be CNG, Hydrogen, Ammonia, Ethanol, ‘Wood gas’ and so forth; almost making the term ‘Slow NGVs’ an oxymoron.

At the same time, the system also encourages ‘water injection’ to be applied. As we all know, current spark-ignition technology worst enemy is water. Ironically, water is needed to improve thermodynamic efficiency, especially in Crower’s Six-Stroke Engine.
Rather than being shorted by water at the spark gap, the intensified-plasma electrolyzed it to separate it into individual molecules, hydrogen and oxygen – one of the powerful mix existed. Thus, causing the ignition triggered to become more energetic.

Moving along, highly energised photons are released; especially in the UV-range, as the by-product of the plasma. Hence, accelerating the chemical process even more!  To be exact, photon ignition system already long existed, patent like 4947640, and many others proves the point. The only missing feature is that it is only designed to use on aircraft engines.

Literature Review (Comparisons with Existing Products)
As stated before, there’s no known product which is designed to accelerate the combustion process. Actually, there’re some few efforts from various companies like Pulstar, MSD, Federal-Mogul and others. All of them all have both pros and cons.

Take Pulstar as example, according to sampled customer feedbacks, the product can’t be guaranteed to work on every car. The success rate is pretty random and hard to guess.

While MSD have almost no complain at all, but it requires a major ignition system swap to work. Increasing (very skilled) labour cost for the installation and it only work at low RPM.

Federal-Mogul, they offers corona ignition, even the company is very stable at the moment, but the proposed product is still in development phase.

Fuel additive also played into the role. Like for instance, the popular Acetone additive found in the Internet; works well enhancing the combustion reaction.

The latest kind of ignition system (when this paper was written) is ‘Laser Ignition System’, still using photon, but with weakness of the lens might get clouded within limited time of use.

‘Dual Ignition’ also an interesting concept, it employs two spark plugs to ignite the combustion mixture as fast as possible, by introducing two flame fronts.

Another effort done by NGV industries is they introduce ‘Timing Advance Processor (TAP)’, it works by advancing the ignition firing angle for the slow CNG to burn. The system works decently, because of inherently slow burning CNG, the result is still bounded to certain limit. 


Project Planning
We divide our task into two major parts; hardware design and software design. Most of them are research and development process, it consumes time, thus, needs to be delicately planned. We kickstart our project early, around year 2009.
With new knowledge acquired, we intend to improve our project, attached chart describe our future planned event.

Future Improvements
The success of previous project leads us to redesign the system. Option includes:-

·         Timing control via Look Up Table (LUT)
·         LCD Display with human interface
·         Poly-Phase Boost converter
·         Multiple spark discharge
·         Throttle Position Sensor
·         Crank Angle Sensor
·         Custom Spark Plug
·         Alternator MPPT
·         Knock Sensor

The R&D consumes time and money. We hope we could include the above features in shortest time possible. We look forward to use intelligent device like a microcontroller in future.

Tools Used
The project is relatively complex, it involves both electronics and mechanical element. Thus, special tools are needed to make all these possible:

·         Rigol DS1102E Oscilloscope
·         Hakko FX-888 Soldering Station
·         Clamp, LCR Multimeter
·         ICD2 ICSP for PIC uC
·         Arduino Uno with IDE
·         HP LaserJet P1006, UV Box, Dremel
·         Homemade LED Timing Light
·         MPLABX, Proteus, Ltspice, DesignSpark

Conclusion
HIPIS is a beneficial advancement in ignition system. Combustion process accelerated by exposed to intense UV, as the result; engine runs quieter, smoother, better responsiveness. It also lowers environmental pollution which means it saves money and other resources.

References

Dual ignition, 

Dual ignition on auto engines without dual plugs, http://www.jodel.com/index.asp?p=dualignition&engines     

INTELLIGENT-DUAL SEQUENTIAL IGNITION (IDSI),

Gas turbine engine photon ignition system,

PLASMA IGNITION SPARK AMPLIFICATION MODULES,

New laser system for fuel ignition may lead to reduced auto emissions, greater fuel efficiency,

Laser Car Ignition Dream Sparks Multiple Approaches,

Ford Developing Laser Ignition to Cut Exhaust Emissions,

What is a “pulse plug” and how is it different than a regular spark plug?,

Wasted spark, 

Ignition timing, 

Timing Advance Processor (TAP) or Advance Corrector,


What will you need to build YOUR OWN CDI?,

Acetone In Fuel Said to Increase Mileage,

Federal-Mogul Advanced Corona Ignition System (ACIS)
shows up to 10% reduced fuel consumption in testing,

Six-stroke engine, 

The Greenest Gasoline Engine in the World,

MSD gives you the Fire to Drive,

MultiAir, 

Engine knocking, 

Exhaust gas recirculation, 

Capacitor discharge ignition, 

Author’s homepage,

All of the references are in ‘Bluebook’ style and last retrieved Nov. 8, 2012

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More to come...


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